Technoledge DI



General Introduction

The Technoledge courses of Design Informatics (DI) and Structural Design (SD) are integrated for this semester. The students of both chairs will work together to design and construct a challenging structure. The course content includes employing glass as a structural material, utilizing parametric design tools for design development and optimization and performing additive manufacturing techniques to develop assembly solutions.

The Design Challenge

The theme of this semester is “Limpid Ground”. The challenge is to design and construct an actual scale glass sandwich slab, which is fully transparent as a demonstration of the theme. You will use glass panels together with ready-made glass objects and make a floor from sandwich panels. You will experiment additive manufacturing and mass customization. You will perform computational design, analysis and optimization. In addition, you will practice a lot of teamwork! The ultimate goal is to explore and learn together while searching the best possible solution to the given challenge.

Glass sandwich structures are promising solutions for creating transparent planar elements of high stiffness and decreased weight. Sandwich glass panels can reduce material consumption, while sparing the necessity of a supporting substructure. To achieve maximum transparency, not only the panels but also the spacers are made of glass, bonded to the glass panel by a clear UV curing acrylate. The optimized design of the glass spacers can lead to interesting patterns, reflecting through the gradient density the force flow within the panel.

The goal of this course is the design, structural optimization, detailing and construction of a glass floor out of four 1.5x6 m  long sandwich panels, resulting in a square floor of 6x6m. To achieve a structure of optimum structural performance, the topological optimization of the glass spacers is essential.  In September 2018, the four constructed panels will be assembled together and they will be used as an elevated 6x6 m walking floor, 50 cm above the ground, at the Glasstec 2018 exhibition.  Thus, the designed floor should be able to carry the expected live load (of people walking on it during the exhibition) and the added weight of other specimens that will be exhibited on top of it.

Illustration of a slab made of glass sandwich panels (MSc thesis of D. Vitalis).







E - Learning.

The explanation on how to use the software is provided online. Make sure you have learned the appropriate online material before the workshops begin.

Important Notes Regarding the Course:

  • The course consists of 6 times 2-hour workshops, and 6 times 4-hour workshops. There will also be 2 weeks of construction.
  • The workshops focus on the design of an architectural object, which you will construct in 1:1 scale using glass panels with ready-made glass objects and 3D printed joints.
  • The workshops start in the 1st week of the semester.
  • You will use computational techniques to generate the design(s).
  • You will present your preliminary design proposals in the 3rd and the final design in the 6th week.
  • There will be a public presentation in the 9th week after the construction is complete.
  • Each of you will produce a personal project report on weekly basis and deliver its final version in the 10th week. This report needs to present your personal evaluation of the entire process.
  • Please be aware that there is very little software training during the workshop hours. Developing software skills requires a lot of self-study. We advise you to use the online manuals and tutorials, which we have provided for you in order to support your self-studies.
  • Please follow the workshop topics on weekly basis and make sure that you have studied and understood the related online materials before each workshop.
  • Attendance is compulsory. If you will not be able to attend a course, please let us know in advance.



Fred Veer

Serdar Aşut

Paul de Ruiter

Faidra Oikonomopoulou


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The assignment

General description;

You will work together as a team and focus on two related tasks; an architectural design and a study on the joint designs for assembly.

Architectural Design:

We ask you to develop a holistic proposal for the  glass floor, which we will exhibit at the GLASSTEC 2018 exhibition in Dusseldorf. The proposal needs to include the design and construction of the floor by using sandwich glass panels, including the supporting structure and accessibility.  The concept of sandwich glass panels is based on the MSc thesis of D. Vitalis. Based on his findings, you will have to think what type of (readily available) glass spacers you would like to use, and speculate on the thickness of the individual components (the float glass, spacers, etc.) and the resulting pattern of the spacers for optimizing the design.

Joint Design:

The joints are important components of this structure. You need to come up with the best joint solutions that provide easy assembly and disassembly. They need to have the desired strength and mechanical performance. They need to be either transparent or translucent in order to support the idea of a transparent ground. You will use additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate these joints. Therefore, another challenge is to make use of the potentials of additive manufacturing in the best possible way. You need to develop joint designs, which are efficient within the use of material, time and other resources. You will eventually present these designs in the form of a portfolio and use the most appropriate ones to build the floor.


  • The final design and the built prototype (Week 8)
  • The portfolio with the joint designs (Week 8)
  • A group report on the final design (Week 10)
  • A 3-page individual project report (Week 10)


Learning Outcomes:


After completing the course, the students are expected to be able to:

  • explain the basic mechanical properties of glass and argue on its proper structural application.
  • design a structure using only glass components for both load-bearing structure and cladding with minimal use of opaque connections.
  • explain and apply the size limitations of float glass components due to their fabrication and transportation processes and cost.
  • implement safe connections between structural glass elements.
  • identify and describe the main risks involved in a glass structure and to implement safety measures.
  • apply structural calculations on a glass structure and evaluate the data.
  • design three dimensional complex forms and implement transformations on the design decisions.
  • apply additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate complex objects.
  • implement performance analysis by using computational tools.
  • identify the constraints and possibilities regarding the fabrication technique and their effects on design development.





Introduction and presentation of the assignment, Making the teams for preliminary design, Refreshing the GH skills.


Presentation of design approaches, Developing the preliminary designs. Starting the computational definition.


Presentation of the design proposals, Discussion and selection of the design to build, Making teams for actualization.


Design development, analysis and optimization, Design development for the joints.


Design development, analysis and optimization, Design development for the joints, Fabrication tests.


Presentation of the Final Design, Planning the building process, Preparations for the construction process, Presentation of the joint designs.




Public Presentation.


Hand-in team project reports and personal project reports..

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Week 5

Week 6

Week 7-8

Downloads and links5

Handing in

Week 1: Introduction – Design Approach

You will design and construct an elevated glass floor, which is approximately 6*6 meters in size. You have only 8 weeks in total to complete it. This is quite short time for such a challenging project. It is going to be an intensive learning process, which includes a lot of experimentation and exploration.

The floor will be made of 2 sandwich glass panels each of which is 3*6 meters in size. So eventually, the resulting floor will have a dimension of 6*6 meters. The sandwich panel will consist of 2 layers of laminated glass and the space between them. The fundamental task of this project is to design the space between the glass layers and develop assembly solutions.

The goal is to design the floor in the most possible transparent form while achieving structural durability. Therefore, all the objects, connectors, joints or binders need to be transparent or translucent. Eventually, the design needs to spare the need of a supporting sub-structure and demonstrate the theme of “Limpid Ground”.

You will use ready-made glass objects to use as spacers between the glass layers. You need to find out the best options which you can find off the shelf. You also need to find out the best assembly solutions such as the connectors, joints and binders in the most possible transparent or translucent form.

You have 3 design objectives each of which is equally important.

Structural Performance: The floor needs to be self-supporting. It also needs to be able to bear the dead load (such as its own weight and the furniture placed on the floor) and the live load (such as the people walking on them) which applies onto it without the need for a sub-structure. You need to achieve the desired structural performance mainly by the topology and the sizes of the spacers: i.e. their physical properties and locations.

Efficiency: You need to design and construct by reducing material consumption and spending as little as possible. Your design decisions and fabrication planning are effective in efficiency.

Aesthetics: The topology of the spacers will conclude a transparent but visible pattern, which is subject to aesthetical evaluation. Therefore, you need to consider all the visual aspects of the design; optical illusions caused by transparency, light transmission, colour, textures and so on -towards the concept of “Limpid Ground”.











Assignment 1.1: Propose Your Design Approach

What would be the best possible approach to answer the given design problem? What is the most efficient strategy for designing and building the sandwich panels? What form and size of spacers would provide us the best solutions? What are the constraints regarding the fabrication? What kind of computational tools would be useful for this project? What would be the approximate building cost? What do you understand from the concept of “Limpid Ground” and how does it affect your approach?

We ask you to answer the above questions and develop a proposal, which describes the best design approach. You need to work in teams of 2 people for this assignment. The team members shall be from different departments. You are going to present your proposals next week. We hope that each team will come up with a different strategy/approach so that we have a lot to discuss during the workshop hours. So, please be brave and experimental! We ask you to prepare a digital presentation (in any form) which takes appx 10 minutes. Also, please submit a written report with visuals and texts as a hard copy and a pdf file.

Assignment 1.2: Refresh Your GH Skills

This exercise is to refresh your Grasshopper skills. Please download, view and understand this definition, which you can find in this link. This is a simple algorithm, which works with an attractor inside a rectangular area. There are a number of points distributed inside the area. The points are generated between the attractor and certain points on the rectangle. We ask you to first understand how this definition works. Then, improve it by introducing two more attractors. One of the attractors that you add needs to be related to the existing attractor. In other words, it needs to find its position by following the existing one. The third attractor can be placed freely, without relating the other two. Eventually, the distribution of the points needs to be generated by an algorithm, which you will develop by using the three attractors as input. You are free to change the distribution logic which is given to you. Please complete this assignment and submit it latest on 14.09 at 10:00 am.

Acropolis Museum, Athens

Week 2: Preliminary Design Development

We ask you to start developing your preliminary design proposals based on the critics you have received in the previous week. You will go on working as the same teams. You are going to present your proposals next week (the 3rd week). Then, we will altogether vote for the best proposal. Eventually, all of you will start working on the selected proposal towards actualization in the next phase. Therefore, you need to convince us that your proposal is the best one to build in relation with the project objectives defined earlier.

In this phase, we ask you to start using GH for developing a parametric definition of your design decisions. You need to start this process by making diagrams and mind-maps, which include all the factors that take role in design development.

Apple Store, New York


Assignment 2.1: Present Your Design Proposal

We ask you to present your design proposals including:

  • your theoretical response to the theme of “Limpid Ground”
  • a sketchy visualization of the final design(s)
  • an algorithmic diagram which you will use for developing the design(s)
  • your strategy for using the computational tools
  • your strategy for optimization
  • your insights for the construction process
  • a more or less accurate calculation for the building cost.

We ask you to prepare a digital presentation (in any form) which takes appx 10 minutes. Also, please submit a 1-page A3 size poster with visuals and texts that illustrate the design(s) as hard copy and a pdf file.

Assignment 2.2: Computational Optimization


Week 3: Decisions towards Actualization

We are going to have a very interactive workshop this week. You will first present your preliminary design proposals. Then, we will altogether vote for the best proposal. This is going to include a lot of discussion in order to find out which proposal is the best towards project objectives.

Once we select the design to construct, the next step is to figure out what, how and when to be done. To this end, you will define the work packages, assign roles for each person and immediately start working. The designers of the selected proposal will naturally be the moderators in this phase. In addition to the work packages, they will be responsible for enabling the communication between everyone and make sure that things run smoothly.



Assignment 3.1: Project Planning Report

We ask you (as a team) to hand-in a planning report, which includes:

  • the work packages,
  • the role(s) of each person,
  • the schedule including the build-week.

Illustration indicating the main connections that need to be solved and the challenges involved. (MSc thesis of D. Vitalis)

Week 4: Analysis and Optimization

From this week on, you need to develop the selected design towards actualization. The design decisions need to be analyzed and optimized using computational techniques. Your most challenging assignment in this phase is to perform perfect communication between the people each of which is responsible for a certain task(s). A good output is possible only when you all keep an eye on what all the others are doing and give a hand when necessary. Also, please always keep in mind that you will build the design at the end.

You also need to start developing the portfolio of joints. You already have identified the design problem. You already know the constraints and possibilities. So, what would be the best solution for joints? Start developing these solutions systematically in the form of a portfolio. You will submit this portfolio at the end of the course. The most appropriate joints will be used in the construction.

We advise you to achieve the following outputs by the end of this week:

  • Minimum 3 rational proposals for the topological pattern of the spacers.
  • Structural performance analysis for each pattern design.
  • Options for ready-made objects as spacers (including logistics and financial aspects)
  • Options for assembly solutions (joints, binders, etc.)


Assignment 4.1: Project Progress Report I

We ask you (as a team) to submit a progress report, which documents all the work done so far. Please submit a digital presentation (in any form) which takes 10 minutes to show at the beginning of the next workshop hours so that we all refresh and go on. Please also submit a written report (with visuals) as a hard copy and a pdf file.




Strain/Stress Analysis (MSc thesis of D. Vitalis)

Week 5: Towards Fabrication

We expect you to go on developing the design proposal while putting certain things more concrete. You particularly need to start testing the fabrication technique for the joints, and the application of binders. The results of these tests will naturally be input to design decisions. Moreover, you need to come up with a final decision on the topological design of the spacers and conclude the structural analysis and simulations using computational techniques.

Heads-up..: Additive manufacturing requires quite some time. Therefore, you need to calculate the printing time in advance and schedule it considering the project deadline.

By the end of this week, you should already have;

  • a complete design for the topological pattern of the spacers,
  • a decision on what kind of ready-made spacers and joints to use and the logistics regarding them.
  • a sound plan on how and when to fabricate the joints for assembly (and start if necessary),


Assignment 5.1: Project Progress Report II

We ask you (as a team) to submit a progress report, which documents all the work done so far. Please submit a digital presentation (in any form) which takes 10 minutes to show at the beginning of the next workshop hours so that we all refresh and go on. Please also submit a written report (with visuals) as a hard copy and a pdf file.

Deformation Analysis (MSc thesis of D. Vitalis)

Week 6: Finalize

You will present the final design this week. Please prepare a presentation (in any form) which takes appx 30 minutes and includes:

  • Your response to the concept of “Limpid Ground”
  • The visuals of the final design
  • Visuals which present the development process
  • Structural analysis of the final design
  • The cost analysis
  • The diagrams showing the computational approaches behind design development
  • The design of the joints
  • Planning of the construction

You will construct the floor in the next 2 weeks. This phase requires a new team set-up. Therefore, you need to define the work packages regarding the construction process and assign roles to people this week. The daily schedule needs to be clear. Moreover, you need to predict the possible troubles, which you may face during the construction; and prepare cautions and back up plans to overcome them. So, ask yourself “what can go wrong” and prepare for it.


Assignment 7.1: Final Presentation Report

We ask you (as a team) to submit a report which illustrates the final project with images, charts, diagrams and some text. Please submit and present a digital presentation (in any form) which takes appx 30 minutes to present at the class. Also, please submit a written report (with visuals) as a hard copy and a pdf file.

Assignment 7.2: Construction Planning Report

We ask you (as a team) to submit a planning report for the construction process. This report needs to include a detailed schedule for the construction, charts that show the work packages and the roles of the people, the planning for the logistics (how will you organize the construction site) and the back up plans for possible troubles. Please submit and present a digital presentation (in any form) which takes appx 30 minutes to present at the class. Also, please submit a written report (with visuals) as a hard copy and a pdf file.

Stress Distribution (MSc thesis of D. Vitalis)

Construction Week

Technoledge 2015 in Izmir




Downloads and links




Make sure you installed the correct software before the start of the workshops.


  • Mac users: Install Windows on your latop through Bootcamp (No parralels of VirtualBox)



  • Rhino 5 installation manual:



  • Rhino 5 download:

            via blackboard


  • Neon (64 bit)



  • Adobe Illustrator,  or Inkscape

  * (Adobe Create Cloud is not free available)


  • Inkscape

   (Open source,)










Digital conduct


  • The following article on the toi-pedia provides an outline of "good practice" habits when managing your files in Grasshopper.
  • If your model is not constructed according to these instructions, your instructors are not obliged to help you on your files. By maintaining this logic across the student body, files will become easily understandable for instructors, but also exchangeable between fellow students, resulting in a rapidly expanding knowledge.
  • "While poorly written code is often manageable, a poorly organized gh document can be absolute hell." -Alexander on Grasshopper Forum


Online Course material


Examples in download folder below








Problem solving


  • If you own an Apple laptop  you might have problems installing some of the software we use at the faculty. For help you can drop by @HOK. Student ICT Support for advice.


  • Any other problems with your laptop or with installing software Please drop by  @HOK. Student ICT Support for advice



Self help


Help files

  • Rhino has an excellent help function. If you don't know what certain commands do press F1


Targeted search

  • Do you encounter a problem, type the exact comment in google and most of the times there will be an explanation of the problem.

@hok Student ICT Support

  • Depending on the time you can always drop by at @HOK  You can find  @hok at BG.Middle.130 (Ground floor - Main street )


  • Forums can help you with your questions. There are a range of active forums you could use. Make sure you make your question as clear as possible.





Week 1.1  07.09.2017

Assignment 1.1

Assignment 1.2


Week 1.2 14.09.2017

Assignment 2.1

Assignment 2.2


Week 1.3   21.09.2017

Assignment 3.1

Week 1.4  28.09.2017

Assignment 4.1


Week 1.5 05.10.2017

Assignment 5.1



Week 1.6 12.10.2017

Assignment 6.1

Assignment 6.2




Telnr +3127892136


Room 01+.West.040


Faculty of Architecture and the

Built Environment


Building 8


Julianalaan 134


2628 BL Delft